Open Access Highly Accessed Original article

Simultaneous production of isopropanol, butanol, ethanol and 2,3-butanediol by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 engineered strains

Florent Collas12, Wouter Kuit13, Benjamin Clément2, Rémy Marchal2, Ana M López-Contreras1* and Frederic Monot2

Author Affiliations

1 Food and Biobased Research, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Bornse Weilanden 9, 6708, WG Wageningen, Netherlands

2 IFP Energie Nouvelles, Biotechnology Department, 1-4 Avenue Bois-Préau, 92852, Rueil-Malmaison, France

3 Current address: Clostridia Research Group, BBSRC Sustainable Bioenergy Centre, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK

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AMB Express 2012, 2:45  doi:10.1186/2191-0855-2-45

Published: 21 August 2012

Abstract

Isopropanol represents a widely-used commercial alcohol which is currently produced from petroleum. In nature, isopropanol is excreted by some strains of Clostridium beijerinckii, simultaneously with butanol and ethanol during the isopropanol butanol ethanol (IBE) fermentation. In order to increase isopropanol production, the gene encoding the secondary-alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme from C. beijerinckii NRRL B593 (adh) which catalyzes the reduction of acetone to isopropanol, was cloned into the acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE)-producing strain C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The transformants showed high capacity for conversion of acetone into isopropanol (> 95%). To increase isopropanol production levels in ATCC 824, polycistronic transcription units containing, in addition to the adh gene, homologous genes of the acetoacetate decarboxylase (adc), and/or the acetoacetyl-CoA:acetate/butyrate:CoA transferase subunits A and B (ctfA and ctfB) were constructed and introduced into the wild-type strain. Combined overexpression of the ctfA and ctfB genes resulted in enhanced solvent production. In non-pH-controlled batch cultures, the total solvents excreted by the transformant overexpressing the adh, ctfA, ctfB and adc genes were 24.4 g/L IBE (including 8.8 g/L isopropanol), while the control strain harbouring an empty plasmid produced only 20.2 g/L ABE (including 7.6 g/L acetone). The overexpression of the adc gene had limited effect on IBE production. Interestingly, all transformants with the adh gene converted acetoin (a minor fermentation product) into 2,3-butanediol, highlighting the wide metabolic versatility of solvent-producing Clostridia.

Keywords:
Clostridium; Butanol; Biobutanol; Isopropanol; IBE fermentation; 2,3-butanediol; Acyl-CoA transferase